What is reservation method?

  • Jul 09, 2024
What is reservation method?

The Reservation Method is defined as the process whereby firms set aside inventory for clients by reserving stock for them.

The reservation method is a method of reserving for certain discriminated groups, facilities, places, or opportunities for them. Reservation policies seek to ensure that minority groups have the chance to be considered and be given equal opportunities in sectors such as education, employment, or even government.

The Reservation Method at a Glance

Reservation policies were set in India in the later part of the nineteenth and the earlier part of the twentieth centuries during the British colonialism period. They were introduced with a view of expanding chances and chances of the oppressed castes/tribes which for centuries had been marginalized in the socioeconomic sphere due to the Hindu caste system.

When used in this context, the term reservation means a process of setting aside a certain proportion of the available slots for the members of a specific category. The groups that have the right to seek reservation are Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in India. This system of affirmative action was embraced in India after the country's independence to enhance the status of these communities.

In the past, other countries with Indigenous peoples with minority rights similar to American Indians such as Malaysia, Nigeria, and Nepal also employed the reservation method. It seeks to guarantee minorities that they will be given chances, means, and an opportunity to be part of the community.

Understanding the Key Aspects of the Reservation Method

There are several key components of how the reservation method functions:

1. The setting of percentage targets A certain percentage of the available seats, employment opportunities, or resources is then set aside for the deserving or qualified minority groups. For instance, for the government sectors, it may be specified that 15% of the total employment opportunities should be given to the members of the backward classes as identified by the government.

2. Legal Background The legal recognition of reservation is evident in the constitutional provisions of most countries, legislation, or even executive orders. India has legislated affirmative action in public sector education and employment.

3. Beneficiary Groups These are groups that qualify to be reserved to encourage their participation in a given course and are identified through social, economic, and cultural barriers they have suffered from in society. When it comes to determining which groups can get reservations, there are distinct benchmarks.

4. Extent Reservation is limited to only certain fields such as entry into public universities, government jobs, and the number of seats in the legislative assembly. It encompasses a broad range that is more dependent on the country or the region in which it is practiced.

5. Supervise and control Commissions and government agencies supervise the process of implementation of reservations and hear complaints concerning the violation of the rights.

Other quantitative representations of reservations may include lower standard requirements, an additional attempt, or age concession to help disadvantaged groups secure civil service and qualifications and admissions in educational institutions.

First, it is imperative to understand the aims of reservation.

The reservation method aims to address significant underrepresentation and inequality by The reservation method aims to address significant underrepresentation and inequality by:

  • Uplifting Communities: Improving the socioeconomic status and prospects of various discriminated indigenes/first nations and lower castes.
  • Promoting Diversity: Mainly, the improvement of the representation and the inclusion of minorities in public education and the employment areas of which they have previously been locked out.
  • Achieving Equality: By implementing preferential treatment as a measure to fast-track de facto equality by channeling resources to specific disadvantaged areas.

The reservation method tries to level the playing field by ensuring the discriminatory groups access to positions and other opportunities that they have lacked in the past. They make it possible for the existing facilities, opportunities, and services in the public structures in plural societies to be available in a more balanced way across the castes and ethnic groups.

This paper aims at answering the following question What are some key benefits of Reservation?

There are several advantageous outcomes associated with properly implemented reservation methods: There are several advantageous outcomes associated with properly implemented reservation methods:

Increased Representation: The enrolment and selection ratios of minorities are shown to have considerably increased over some time in terms of higher education and public sectors.

Upward Mobility: Encourage higher socioeconomic productivity across generations particularly of disadvantaged groups by providing them with education and the opportunity to join formal employment.

Mainstreaming: The social inclusion of minorities into everyday society to broaden diverse thinking and accommodate the prejudice of discriminated groups in public facilities.

Asset Creation: It is for this reason that reservations play an important role in the creation of assets for the lower income groups as lifetime tenure of salaried government jobs and gradual acquisition of land by farmers and tenants.

Political Empowerment: The positive impact of this policy: Provides traditionally marginalized communities with policy-making roles and decision-making authority within the legislature, administrative services, and judiciary, thus increasing the effectiveness of governance.

In sum, recent studies from India suggest that reservation policies have been implemented in such a manner that they have brought about a quantitative positive change in the state of socioeconomic development and representation levels of intended beneficiary groups over the past few decades.

Some of the Critiques of Reservation That Can Be Considered Are as Follows:

While reservations aim to address historical injustice, they have drawbacks that must be balanced: While reservations aim to address historical injustice, they have drawbacks that must be balanced:

Breeds Resentment: The other category of people does not see the rationale behind reservations as a form of discriminating against the dominant group by overlooking affirmative action.

Inefficiency: Asians with low qualifications taking up places due to quotas may reduce the productivity of service delivery such as teaching or in a hospital. However, there is no clear consensus on this.

'Creamy Layer' Issue: It is widely used by the affluent stratum within a targeted minority and is more inclined to offer privileges than inclusive growth.

Quota Ceiling Issue: The range for reservation on the upper limit is not fixed and is politically sensitive to set up and is always a matter of controversy if it exceeds the 50 percent limit.

Identity Politics Risk: Strengthens communalism and political reservations in the groups than the OBCs which are not entitled to them.

Despite the difficulties in this approach, reservation policies are well accepted by the public in India as pragmatic measures that are needed for a limited period to reverse discrimination. However, the policies must be revised from time to time and must be complemented with other interrelated inclusive development programs for the overall uplift of the respective sections.


The reservation method intervenes proactively through quotas and set-asides to improve the respective concerns regarding the education and the public sector employment of underrepresented groups. Ever since independence, India, Malaysia, and other countries have sought to promote social and economic development for the Scheduled Castes, Tribes, and Backward Classes after decades of denial.

If well designed and especially when well implemented, reservations can make positive impacts on indicators such as income levels, literacy rates, levels of infant mortality, and generations of political participation. However, reservations alone cannot remedy racial that involves compound discrimination. They should be complemented with more numbers of other policies and programs that support inclusive development to remove such remaining barriers progressively and to achieve sustainable improvements in the overall opportunities for people in the future.

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